Verifiable Auditing Protocol with Proxy Re-Encryption for Outsourced Databases in Cloud
GAO Ziyuan, WANG Baocang, LIU Hequn, LU Ke, ZHAN Yu1. State Key Laboratory of Integrated Service Networks, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, Shaanxi, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Cognitive Radio and Information Processing of Ministry of Education, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004, Guangxi, China
As a new computing paradigm, outsourcing computing provides inexpensive, on-demand, convenient storage and computing services for cloud clients. For the security of outsourcing da-tabases to the cloud, it is important to allow the user to verify the query results returned by the cloud server. So far, tremendous efforts have been carried out to study secure outsourcing computing. The existing scheme supports that the user can detect the correctness and completeness of the query results even if the cloud server returns an empty set. However, since the data owner performs the database encryption operations and uploads the encrypted database to the cloud server, they require the user to request the data owner to decrypt the query results. In this paper, we propose a new scheme, which can accurately verify the search results. Meanwhile, the users can decrypt the query results independently. Furthermore, the proposed scheme supports a large number of data owners to upload their encrypted database to the cloud server, and it can efficiently verify the query results. Besides, we can prove that our proposed solution can achieve the desired security properties.
 Mell P, Grance T. The NIST definition of cloud compu-ting[J]. Communications of the ACM, 2009, 53(6): 50-50.
 Atallah M J, Pantazopoulos K N, Rice J R, et al. Secure outsourcing of scientific computations [J]. Communications of the ACM, 2002, 54(01):215-272.
 Buyya R, Yeo C S, Venugopal S, et al. Cloud computing and emerging IT platforms: Vision, hype, and reality for deliv-ering computing as the 5th utility[J]. Future Generation Computer Systems, 2009, 25(6):599-616.
 Chen X, Li J, Ma J, et al. New algorithms for secure out-sourcing of modular exponentiations[C] // Computer Security -ESORICS 2012. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2012: 2386- 2396.
 Mykletun E, Narasimha M, Tsudik G. Authentication and integrity in outsourced databases[J]. ACM Transactions on Storage, 2004, 2(2): 107-138.
 Nuckolls G. Verified query results from hybrid authentica-tion trees[C]// Ifip Wg 11.3 Working Conference on Data and Applications Security. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2005: 84-98.
 Pang H H, Jain A, Ramamritham K, et al. Verifying com-pleteness of relational query results in data publishing [C]// Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data. New York: ACM Press, 2005: 407-418.
 Narasimha M, Tsudik G. Authentication of outsourced databases using signature aggregation and chaining[C] // International Conference on Database Systems for Advanced Applications. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2006: 420- 436.
 Pang H H, Zhang J, Mouratidis K. Scalable verification for outsourced dynamic databases [J]. Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment, 2009, 2(1): 802-813.
 Mouratidis K, Sacharidis D, Pang H. Partially materialized digest scheme: an efficient verification method for out-sourced databases [J]. VLDB Journal, 2009, 18(1): 363-381.
 Alazzi B, Pizzonia M, Pucacco S. Query racing: Fast com-pleteness certification of query results[C] // Data and Applications Security and Privacy XXIV. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2010: 177-192.
 Devanbu P T, Gertz M, Martel C U, et al. Authentic third-party data publication[C]// IFIP TC11/ Wg11.3 Four-teenth Working Conference on Database Security: Data and Application Security, Development and Directions. London: Kluwer, 2000: 101-112.
 Bertino E, Carminati B, Ferrari E, et al. Selective and au-thentic third-party distribution of XML documents[J]. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, 2004, 16(10): 1263-1278.
 Devanbu P, Gertz M, Martel C, et al. Authentic data publication over the Internet [J]. Journal of Computer Security, 2003, 11(3):291-314.
 Sion R. Query execution assurance for outsourced data-bases[C] // International Conference on Very Large Data Bases. New York: ACM Press, 2005: 601-612.
 Xie M, Wang H, Yin J, et al. Integrity auditing of outsourced data[C]// International Conference on Very Large Data Bases. New York: ACM Press, 2007: 782-793.
 Mykletun E, Narasimha M, Tsudik G. Signature bouquets: Immutability for aggregated/condensed signatures[J]. Lec-ture Notes in Computer Science, 2004, 3193: 160-176.
 Chai Q, Gong G. Verifiable symmetric searchable encryption for semi-honest-but-curious cloud servers[C] // IEEE International Conference on Communications. Washington D C: IEEE, 2012: 917-922.
 Wang J, Ma H, Tang Q, et al. Efficient verifiable fuzzy keyword search over encrypted data in cloud computing[J]. Computer Science & Information Systems, 2013, 10(2): 667- 684.
 Wang J, Chen X, Huang X, et al. Verifiable auditing for outsourced database in cloud computing[J]. IEEE Transac-tions on Computers, 2015, 64(11): 3293-3303.
 Ateniese G, Benson K, Hohenberger S. Key-Private proxy re-encryption[C] // Topics in Cryptology-CT-RSA 2009. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2009:279-294.
 Evdokimov S, Günther O. Encryption techniques for secure database outsourcing[C] // Computer Security-ESORICS 2007, European Symposium on Research in Computer Security. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2007: 327-342.
 Dan B, Gentry C, Lynn B, et al. Aggregate and verifiably encrypted signatures from bilinear maps[J]. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2003, 2656(1): 416-432.
 Merkle R C. Protocols for public key cryptosystems[C]// 1980 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. Washington D C: IEEE, 1980: 122-122.